I. History of the Exploration of the Norwegian Sea

Expeditions before 1876 .
Period 1876-1900.
Period after 1900.

II. The Cruises, 1900-1904

III. Instruments and Methods

III.1. Necessity of Accuracy in Oceanographic Research

III.2. Determination of the Deep-Sea Temperature

The Reversing Thermometers.
Determination of Deep­Sea Temperature by Insulated Water-Bottles .
The so-called "Nansen Deep-Sea Thermometers" of the Insulated Water-Bottles.

III.3. Water-Bottles

The Great Nansen Insulated Water-Bottle .
The Great Pettersson- Nansen Insulated Water-Bottle .
The Small Pettersson Insulated Water-Bottle.
The Nansen Stop ­Cock Water-Bottles.
The Ekman Reversing Water­Bottle.

III.4. The Preservation of   the Water-Samples.

III.5. Determination of Salinity and Specific Gravity.

The Titrations
The Determinations of the Specific Gravity.

IV. The Basin of the Norwegian Sea

IV.1. The Area of the Norwegian Sea.

IV.2. The Bathymetrical Features of the Norwegian Sea

The Bathymetrical Chart, P1.
The Chief Features of the Basin of the Norwegian Sea.

V. General Description of the Water-Masses of the Norwegian Sea

V.1. The different Waters

V.2. Regularity in the Vertical distribution of Density in the Sea

VI. Apparent Irregularities in the Horizontal Distribution of Temperature, Salinity, and Density

VI.1. Puzzling " Waves " of the Equilines in Vertical Sections.

VI.2. Possible Causes of the "Waves".

Waves in the Intermediate Water-Strata,
Oscillations shown by Surface-Observations.
"Pulsations” in in Sea-Currents.
Periodic Variations in the Hydrostatic Equilibrium.
Temporary Disturbances of the Hydrostatic Equilibrium.
Cyclonic (or Anticyclonic) Vortex-Movements.

VI.3. Necessity of Numerous Stations.

VII The Norwegian Atlantic Current.

VII. 1. Course and Extent of the Current.

Between the Færoes and Iceland.
The FæroeShetland Channel.
Offshoots into the North Sea.
In the Norwegian Sea.
The importation and Exportation of the Norwegian Sea.
The North Cape Current.
The Spitsbergen Atlantic Current.

VII.2. The Velocities of the Current, and the Volumes of Water conveyed by it.

Direct Current-Measurements.
Dynamical Calculations.
Calculations of the Average Velocities.
Calculations of the Volume of Water transported by the Current.

VII. 3. Annual and Seasonal Variations.

VII.3.1 The Annual Variations.

Variations in the Sectional Area of the Atlantic Water in the Norwegian Sea.
Variations in Mean Temperature.
Variations in Quantity of Heat, stored in the Atlantic Water.
Variations in Mean Temperature in the English Channel,
in the Færoe-Shetland Channel,
and in the Northern North Sea.
Variations in the Temperature of the Water and in the Distribution of the Ice in the Barents Sea.

VII. 3.2 The Relation between the Annual Variations in the Temperature of the Atlantic Current and the Variations in the Temperature of the Atmosphere.

The winter-temperature of Norway compared with the quantity of heat stored in the southern Norwegian Sea;
with the ice in the Barents Sea.
The mean surface-temperature compared with the air temperature;
with the growth of fir;
with the harvests in Norway.

VII. 3.3. Relations between the Annual Variations in the Temperature of the Atlantic Water and the Growth and Spawning of Food- Fishes.

The mean temperature of the water compared with the quantity of Cod-roe and Cod-liver obtained during the Lofoten­ Fisheries;
with the number of Small Haddock in the North Sea;
with the growth and spawning of Herring;
with the early or late arrival of the Cod at the Lofoten-banks.
The mean air­temperature compared with the quantity of Cod roe and Cod-liver obtained during the Lofoten-Fisheries.
Agreement with the periods of Sun-spots.
Relation between the Variations in the Spawning (Cod-roe) and the Quantity of Cod in the Sea.
The possible cause of the agreement between the Hydrographical and Biological Conditions.

VII.3.4. The Seasonal Variations

Variations in the Shape of the Sections;
in the Mean Temperature;
in the Salinity.

VIII. The Norwegian Coast Water

VIII. 1. Salinity and Temperature .

VIII. 2. The Movements of the Norwegian Coast Water.

The Skagerack.
Off Jederen.
Off Söndmöre.
The Fjords.

VIII.3. Annual and Seasonal Variations

Annual Variations.
Annual Variations in Salinity;
in Temperature;
in Sectional Area. The Annual Variations in the Sectional Area in relation to the Rainfall.

Relation between the Annual Variations in the Coast Water and the Fisheries at Sprat and small Herring.

Seasonal Variations

Seasonal Variations in Temperature;
in Salinity.
Lateral Oscillations of the Coast Water

IX. Polar Currents

Polar Water

IX.1. The Bear Island Arctic Current.

IX.2. The Spitsbergen Polar Current.

IX.3. The East Greenland Polar Current.

The Horizontal and Vertical Distribution of Temperature, Salinity, and Density within the Cold Water of de Current.

The Intermediate Warm Water-Layer Underlying the Cold Polar Water.

The Vertical Distribution of Temperature and Salinity in the Region of the East Greenland Polar Current.

Course and Extent of the East Green land Polar Current

IX.4. The East Iceland Arctic Current.

Arctic Water.
The Origin of the Current.

The “Tongue” of Arctic Water along the Slope of the Færoe-Iceland Ridge.

The Seasonal Variations in the East Ice land Arctic Current.

Annual Variations in the East Iceland Current.

IX.5. The Denmark Strait Polar Current.

IX.6. The Ice.

The North Polar Ice.
The Arctic Ice.
The Melting of the Ice.

X. The Cyclonic Systems of the Southern and Northern Norwegian Sea

The Cyclonic System of the Southern Norwegian Sea.

The Cyclonic System of the Northern Norwegian Sea.

Cyclonic System of the Iceland Sea.

XI. The Bottom-Water of the Norwegian Sea

Its Distribution and Formation

The Characteristics of the Bottom-Water;
The manner in which the cold Bottom-Water of the Norwegian Sea originates.

The salinity and Specific Gravity of the Bottom-Water



The Tables

Explanation of the tables.
  I.  Time and Locality of Stations taken between August, 1902, and   June , 1904.
 II. Observations at Stations taken between July, 1900, and May, 1902.
III. Surface-Observations.

Supplement to Tables  

Back to Preface

The Plates

The Figures